India’s Geography Problem

India’s Geography Problem
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This video was made possible by Squarespace. Build your web presence for 10% by
going to squarespace.com/Wendover. India is a bit of an anomaly on the world
stage. It’s a massive 1.2 billion person strong
country stretching thousands of miles tall and thousands of miles wide with one of the
most sizable economies in the world, but it was
never really destined to be a country… at least not in
its current form. Modern India looks like this. To the north-east the country is shielded
by the formidable Himalayas. This mountain range is nearly impenetrable
even for a modern army. China and India
have fought a few small skirmishes over border disputes in the region, but a full-scale land
invasion from either across the Himalayas would be difficult. China has control over Tibet—a
vast region lacking the infrastructure necessary for quick troop movement—while India remains
politically close with Bhutan and Nepal—two nations sandwiched between India and China. Largely because of this enormous mountain
range, India historically has not had many relations
with China—the other superpower of the region. Contact between the two countries today
remains cold due to their border disputes. Both countries claim this entire area and
every few years the dispute escalates—a dangerous
situation between two nuclear powers. You can’t even
drive from India to China due to this—there are no border crossings between them—but
for most there’s little reason to cross the border
as the two countries are vastly different culturally. As
mentioned, due to the mountain range they didn’t have much contact historically so
they each developed into what they are today independently. India’s longest border is with the ocean. Ocean borders are a bit of a double edged
sword. The ocean allows civilizations like India
fairly simple access to the world, but it also isolates. Some countries, like the UK, used oceans both
to grow their global power while also benefiting from the relative protection they give. Any military invading by water is at a significant
disadvantage to those defending so ocean borders were and still are a source of geographical
protection. India is also relatively isolated in distance
to other powerful countries so a defensive navy was never really necessary because the
country was never significantly threatened by sea. By water, they’re over 800 miles to the
Persian Gulf, about a two day boat journey, over 1,700
miles to Singapore, a four day boat journey, and nearly 3,500 miles to Hong Kong, over
a week’s boat journey. In fact, by boat, they’re really just as
close to the significant cities of eastern Asia
as Perth, Australia. Many of the other powerful countries of the
world developed into what they are today because of their proximity to other
centers of power. In Europe, if Portugal invented
something it would quickly spread to Spain, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and all
the other nearby countries while India had to
go through its whole process of technological and
cultural innovation largely independently. India did have navies through history, but
they were never world-class and they never used them
to conquer lands far away. It was never their priority
as the leaders had their hands full already keeping their massive territory together. They also
didn’t have the need to colonize far-away lands as India itself really had all the resources
they needed. The UK, France, and Spain colonized partially
because they had large, developed populations within small areas lacking enough
natural resources to advance their country’s power. India was a highly developed and powerful
country historically and it just didn’t have the
need to go outside its region. This is part of the reason why India is so
culturally unique but it also may have put them at a disadvantage through
their historical development as they were not
exposed to some of the technological advancements of other civilizations far away. India’s north-west border is really the
problematic one. Back in the 19th and early 20th
century, India was ruled as a colony of the British Empire, but before the British came,
India was not truly a country but rather a loose collective
of regional powers. For example, in the 16th
century someone from this area would have never called themselves Indian—they were
Bahmani. With the British, this entire area was brought
under the rule of one central government that reported to the British crown. This entire area, with nearly a thousand different
languages, hundreds of different ethnic groups, and six
different major religions was grouped into the one
crown colony. Unsurprisingly, the British rule didn’t
last for long. After World War Two, the
nearly bankrupt crown folded to pressure and decided to give up the now unprofitable territory,
but the way they went about leaving the sub-continent has had far-reaching consequences. Many
of those in charge of the transition were followers of a theory that stated that the
diverse people of India were singularly differentiated by
their religion—not their ethnicity, language, or any
other commonality. The idea was that within India there were
two nations in the same territory— the Hindu one and the Muslim one. So, in what they believed was a step that
would reduce violence, those in power split the country
into two—India and Pakistan. The idea was that
Pakistan would be the country for Muslims, while India would be the country for Hindus. Over
the months following the partition, tens of millions of people crossed the border to settle
in the country for their religion and in the ensuing
violence up to a million people died. This whole plan was destined to fail. Pakistan was given land with few resources
and it was a country split in two. East Pakistan was separated from the capital
in West Pakistan by nearly 1,000 miles of hostile territory. To think that the two parts could exist as
one country would be absurd and, unsurprisingly, east
Pakistan eventually revolted and became an independent Bangladesh in 1971. India and Pakistan have been at odds almost
continuously since their partition. They have fought countless times and it’s
now almost engrained in culture for Indians to hate Pakistanis and vice versa. This is far from surprising given that the
two countries were created through concentrating the two
groups that were already at odds, but from an Indian
perspective, the border with Pakistan is a problem because it just looks like this. It’s open, flat,
and relatively sparsely populated compared to the Pakistani side largely because of this—the
Thar desert. The Thar desert pretty much ends right at
the border with Pakistan which means it’s easy for Pakistan to build up their military
infrastructure at the border while it’s hard for India. If
Pakistan invades India they would have to cross this desert which would be difficult,
but overall Pakistan has a greater advantage by having
a populated and inhabitable area on their side of the
border. This border is India’s greatest geographic
weakness and it has helped fuel the ongoing conflict. If there were a significant river or mountain
range or something in between these two countries, they might have been able to coexist,
but as of now, the India-Pakistan conflict seems
almost endless. As the two largest countries in the world
and neighbors, India is most commonly compared to China. In 1980 the two countries had nearly identical
GDP’s and over the past 50 years their populations have grown at similar
tremendous paces, but China has now taken the
lead as the more developed country with a GDP five times greater. But India’s economy is now
growing even faster than China’s. They’re benefiting hugely from one of the
greatest trends in business—outsourcing. Believe it or not, this success can even too
be loosely linked back to geography. The British came to India because of all the
natural resources it had, but their presence back then is part of the reason why
the economy is growing so fast today. There’s no
doubt that the British empire did a lot of bad to the country that has caused huge economic
damage, but during their reign English literacy got good and the country continues to excel
in the English language today. In fact, India is second only to the US in
number of English speakers at 125 million. Of course due to their enormous population
this is only 12% of their people, but businesses worldwide saw the opportunity presented
by a cheap labor market with such good english literacy. The first wave of outsourcing came as businesses
moved their accounting, human resource, and customer support operations
to India, but today India is benefiting from something different. India has become a major destination of software
development outsourcing as Indian developers can do much of the work
for a fraction of the cost of western workers. The
reason India is able to serve this industry is because the country has a lot of educated
people, but it also has a lot of uneducated people. India produces tons of really smart people,
but their educational system also lets many others fall
through the cracks. It’s an unequal system but it
means that the country has a big subset of its population that’s educated enough to
work medium-skilled jobs in English. This is unlike China which has a perhaps more
equal system that produces a huge population educated enough
to work low to medium skilled manufacturing jobs. Part of the reason India’s educational system
might be like this is because the country has
a lot of isolated rural areas. Transportation is very hard in this country
due to hostile terrain, lack of infrastructure, and a hugely dispersed
population. In fact, the entire country historically was
pretty much split into two by this hilly region halfway down the sub-continent. China, on the
other hand, benefits from a much more urbanized population which makes it easier to set up
a smaller number of better schools concentrated
in large cities. The urbanization level of a country
actually correlates very strongly with the quality of their educational system. All the least
urbanized countries like Chad, Afghanistan, and Burundi also have some of the lowest ranked
education systems. Of course correlation does not equal causation
since as a country develops economically it tends to urbanize, but it’s
doubtless that it’s easier to educate a population that’s
concentrated into large cities than spread out. Even the US hasn’t fully solved the problem
of how to educate a spread-out rural population
and there’s a huge disparity in quality of education
between big cities and small towns in America. Overall, in India, there are some great schools
in the cities, but the rural population is often
left behind with sub-par education. India is the country it is today because of
its geography. It inhabits an amazingly diverse
and resource rich area that has successfully been able to serve as home to well over a
billion people. The sub-continent developed into such a diverse
area because it’s always been hard to get around due to natural barriers and size. When the British came they tried to integrate
all the different nations into one country by building
up railway and road infrastructure, but still today
India is a country of nations. Much like the US they’ve created a federalized
government with different states each with a level of autonomy
acknowledging that a one-size-fits-all governance system can not work with so many people with
different ideals, issues, and wishes. The country
benefits hugely by having a favorable geography for agriculture which has allowed it to grow
into the second most populous in the world. Economically, its numbers are its assets. With so
many people, there has to be a good amount of highly educated people who can drive innovation,
serve as a workforce, and raise the development level for the entire country. As one of the fastest
growing economies in the world, the next ten to fifteen years will be crucial for India
and serve as a determination on whether it will be a
great developed superpower of the future or if it’s
destined to fail. If you own a business, run a YouTube channel,
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100 thoughts on “India’s Geography Problem

  1. Wendover before u discuss india's business. Can u pliz explain the history about how THE GOLDEN BIRD and the only daimond producer in the world till 1893 still not developed. Dont blame the geography. The british came to loot and take our resources. They build the road and rails to transport thier stolen goods . Thier East india trading company was only a mask established to rule over the region till they suck them dry. The crown jewel on the british crown is the daimond stolen from india. If u r researching something pliz research the history too. I love watching ur channel but this video about india , tbh it hurts us as an indian………

    ?????? (-_-)

  2. Please DO NOT make informative videos if you do not have accurate information. There are so many errors in the video, I would need another equal length video to point them all out !!!

  3. Your lads with technical and science degree they are talking about history. You can not mock the any kingdom or history of country without reading authentic source.

  4. East Pakistan was forced to revolt against the rule of changing the language and culture by the west Pakistan. Indians never hated Pakistanis But very Pakistanis are breeding i*****c t*****ism and causing all the unrest in the region for which India had to protect itself and retaliate.

  5. If India had no relations with China, who do you think taught KUNG FU to Shaolin Monks?
    Ans-> Indian Prince Bodhidharma

  6. No
    India was always one
    Why British didn't crossed border earlier meant..
    It was bloody English and muslim who did this
    sh!t

  7. Whatever you do , do not let Modi watch this . Like Notebandi , this time he might order us to suddenly Live in Thar desert or in the Himalayas .

  8. India is a shithole country where people piss on streets. Never going back. This country needs to nuked. Its infested.

  9. Oh my Gosh. It was a nice video until you reached the part about the Thar desert…. Lol. Thar desert exists on the Pakistani side as well, and it's not that populated. In fact, the main border issue between India and Pakistan is hardly the Thar desert, rather it is Kashmir.

  10. The video slips into typical stereotypes that are trotted out by apologists for the British Empire benefiting the education, economy and technology of India. They had 25% of world GDP just before the British arrived, getting to less than 5% when the British left. Whilst the Himalayas are a natural barrier, India exported buddhism to China and beyond.

    They built railways their export goods. Not to connect the country and its people. Only reason they taught English is because they needed to rule!

  11. Go through technological innovation independently? Like it was a backwater. The current number system and 0 was invented in India. This dude needs to go back to history school

  12. "India could be grouped into 2 groups, hindu and muslim" has this dude not done any homework?!? The british did that to divide india and cause the arguments. To lessen the power of the Indian National Congress when negotiating independence. Divide and rule, british foreign policy at its finest and caused one of the biggest humanitarian crisis of the 20th century.

  13. Leave it to the British, to go broke after stealing a fortune. Maybe the lizards got their grubby claws on that gold. Remember the dragon in the cave protected that gold more than anything. Something fishy here. You reckon we have been lied to the whole time? I don’t think I’d want to listen to a church that heralded it’s leader a reptilian dragon…hmmmmm. That makes me sound insane……… something is up here, maybe in order to find truth we need to go down the rabbit hole. Ya,, I been there!!!!

  14. Today India has the world's 3rd best Navy and India has never ever attacked any other country in its thousands of years past.

  15. Wendover seems to have its own agenda. They didn’t even raise the problem of Muslim massacres, invasions and enslavement that stopped India from developing into what it should have been.

  16. Maybe make an Indonesian's Geography Problems, especially about how infrastructure growth and economy is too centralised on java island

  17. “English literacy got good”
    As a native English speaker, and an English instructor, I had to laugh
    Long live the evolution of language! It got us where we are 😉

  18. Muslims can't live together with any other religion peacefully,so they asked for separate land and took away two parts West Pakistan (today's Pakistan) and east Pakistan (today's Bangladesh).
    #BoycottMuslims

  19. India may look small on world map but it's civilisation is very ancient and deep. It's not easy to understand India in 5 minutes.
    As an indian, I couldn't understand complete India in my 21yrs old life.

  20. India was united and made a single country by Emperor Aurangzeb who conquered entire India by the end of 17th century and given borders to it 🇮🇳

  21. You have no right to show Arunachal pradesh and J&K as separate parts of India. I live in Arunachal Pradesh and am enraged by this. Fuck China. Arunachal will be with India

  22. India never threatened by sea????
    British amd other European powers came through sea and ruled for almost 200 years!!!

  23. India never threatened by sea????
    British amd other European powers came through sea and ruled for almost 200 years!!!

  24. Main Problem
    Started After Mughal Invasion

    That Started Destroying Indian Culture
    Taxshila to Nalanda University
    Religion Conversion to Destroying Indian Temples

    Sometime Brothers are Fighting for Crown Prince
    Or Neighbour Prince
    But they Never Destroyed Temples
    Never Converted Peoples Religion
    Nalanda University Burned for Several Days

    After that India was Injured Badly Because so Many Years of Brutual Violence
    That Destroyed Inner Peace of Everyone
    Britishers had taken this Situation as Advantage

  25. Indians don't hate common Pakistanis and vice versa… it's only the government and other world powers that promote the wars,coz let's face it,if we unite…many are gonna pee in their pants.

  26. Talks about Indian border problems:
    Doesn't mention how the border pillars are bring shifted northwards into Nepal by the Indian side overnight.

  27. Dude, seriously you must do some research before talking about other countries and specially when talking about countries like India which are portrayed as poor nations suffering from hunger by your highly biased media! In your whole video you did not show a single metro city or tier 2 city or even tier 3 city of India. Instead you showed Chinese city infra in a video of Indian Geography!!! When you were talking about schools you showed a scene which clearly depicts your mental state and not Indian education system or rails, roads and air connectivity at all. Indian education system might have it's flaws but it is hands down one of the best education system and continuously getting better. Your video clearly shows you wanna mock my country. I will not go into telling you about the achievements of my country because you know what it was your job before making this shit. I am disliking this video for now. Next time better do some research and show the reality of my country and not the shit that you have in your dumb brain put in by your bullshit biased media!!!

  28. The facts in this video, I found highly irrelevant…dude do some research before making any such YouTube videos…!! Bdw Railways & road links weren't created by d English for Indian good ,they were wholely & solely created just to serve their selfish motives ,coz ofcourse they would have needed better military control over each region to rule over this vast empire & also d railways helped much in their trade… anyways I don't blame u, coz understanding India is not just everyone's cup of tea…Right!!!?

  29. The creators of this video really need to educate themselves on this topic before they make another video on this topic. For example, India was created with the idea of having multiple cultures, religions, faiths living together under a singular nation.

  30. India and China didn't have much contact hum what about Goutham Buddha and one more thing during that time Nepal was part of India so don't give me that no he is from nepal BS yes he was but it was past of India so don't even because i will not reply

  31. What a double standard!

    Britain promotes diversity in their own country but India and Pakistan had to be separated. The same goes for Sudan and the powers behind the separation. The idea behind such measures isn't peace but creating more conflicts and destabilization.

  32. 1.British build very minimal railway lines at humongous price for looting Indian resources .
    2. India too had a largest navies chola empire (14thcen) which conquered south East Asia, Marathas (18th century ) too had navies under general Nana sahib, also the Mysore empire (16th century) of Tipu Sultan, etc but not oppressed like Britishers in others territory.
    3.we do had cultural and trade ties with China that too with south India like Tamilnadu and Karnataka along with East India like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh.
    4.We gave the Chinese knowledge about our traditional medicines and medical practices and in return they taught us about the silk cloth process in 12century.
    5.when british went our literacy percentage 7.7 to 10% only. they only educated this meagre percentage that to their benefit of controlling our own people with our people.
    6.there were only 40,000 Europeans( British, Irish, Scottish, Swedish, Danish, etc) people who commanded more than 3 lakh Indian soldiers to control more than 50 crore people's at that time.
    7. India's border problem with pakistan is only on Kashmir, Punjab border fronts not that much in the Rajasthan desert.
    Please learn fully before using words like no historic connection, totally different, etc because you know only a handful.

  33. What the F***, India having no relations with China? Buddhism? Jainism? No historical contact? Silk route?
    Chinese students in Indian Universities??

    Go get your facts right!!

    People have always tried to understand India and have failed.

  34. can u do geopolits of Nepal on its monarchy to democracy as india blockade 1989 n 2015 and indo pacific strategy decline by Nepal as to remain neutral

  35. I suggest you rename the channel with minimum correction to be made – replace 'W' with 'B' and as well go to Pakistan and do that so your divide is discovered! Good luck!

  36. "If there were a significant river or mountain range in between India & Pakistan…."
    Indus Water Treaty:- Am I joke to you?

    Pakistan's main river start and flows from India.
    The main reason behind the conflicts is Pakistan never had a stable elected government. Military has always been superior there(in Pakistan), which is totally opposite in India🇮🇳

    There are alot of points which are put wrong in the video I can go on and on, but leave it the Western World have never acknowledged the torture and exploitation we had faced due to Britain Rule(Which was for 200 Years and you say it didn't lasted long?
    Our Freedom Fighters sacrificed there life for freedom it wasn't just given we fought for it and took it!
    Just go and research about JALIAWALA BAGH MASSACRE you'll get a small hint of what the people of our county had to face!
    Next time do a thorough research before putting anything!
    Thank you!

  37. Your quote that India did not have a strong navy is wrong. India had a great naval strength that was abundantly used for trade and commerce. Please read the history to verify

  38. Sorry. Still many wrong reporting. Probably you have used only western material to make this video. Only then one can make so many blunders in reporting facts

  39. 4.15 is false. India has a nation is much older than the British. The word used is Bharat. Goes back to mentions in the Vedas. Fact check please.

  40. My 1st dislike ever for any Wendover video. Fact check missing. Makes me wonder if all the other Wendover videos that I have enjoyed watching have similar flaws? This one I can catch because I live in India. Makes me wonder about other video.

  41. This guy is living somewhere around 18th century, need to do more research nd homework before making any video about India get educate yourself , before British invaders it was the most richest country on the planet contributing around 30% of world GDP nd poor British invaders came nd sucked for 200 years and was left to 0.2 % of World Gdp.You have no idea how India looks like today,, even after being looted for 200 years it is growing more faster than any other Nation.

  42. you didn't tell about the border disputes with Nepal, how border pillar are shifted overnight to capture land of Nepal at border site little by little.

  43. No talk about Indian civilization spiritualism, science, art and culture.
    200 years of rule is long enough.
    Kashmir is the core issue not thar u idiot.
    Ocean wasn't a saviour.
    And there was no such thing as India or Indian back then. This is a foreign term. It was Bharat or Bharatvarsh and everyone living in this land considered himself to be a part of Bharat.
    This was one land from eternity not loosely held pieces of land.
    Another failed attempt to understand India by a westerner.

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